WW1 Planes
WWl PLANES
An encyclopediae of 1914-18 aircraft types

flag ZEPPELIN


The mythical airship

The term "airship" appeared at the same time that the first planes. And back in the fall of the 1890s and early 1900s, it seemed clear to many that airships were clear winners in the competition with "heavier-than-air" crafts. A logical development of the Montgolfier 1770s invention, the balloon, the airship consisting in fitting engines and a new aerodynamic shape and tails to a balloon to make it independent from the power of the wind -to some extent- and dirigible, the other name for this class of aircrafts. This was an answer, driven by the first petrol engines, to the main problem of the balloon, which were like sailships driven by natural forces, the only control remaining being some vertical management by filling or depressing the envelope; The balloon needed to go and by the dawn of the XXth this was the case. The new name cherished by the press was the "airship", a mighty sight in the sky that inspired both awe and fear, as well-envisioned by Jules Vernes in its "Robur the conqueror" novel. Henry Giffard' 1852 dirigible was the first attempt to drive a balloon. In French this literally means "drivable"

The first Blitz The first "Blitz"

Of most nations associated with the birth of aviation two were shining in the field or airships, France and Germany. But on the long run, only one will emerge and became synonymous with the airship type as a whole: Zeppelin. Known by all, it was to pass into imagination, like a dream. A flying cathedral of aluminum, canvas and... (true story !) cow hide. The largest man-made flying objects ever. In fact they will stay forever associated with the spirit of the raring twenties" but also to the first first "blitz" over London back in the Great war. They bring as much as fear as prestige, as well understood by the 3rd Reich. Since Lakehurst catastrophe which ended the story of the airship many aviation enthusiast had prophetised the return of the giants, thanks to new updated and safe technologies. But it never really materialized. So in the end Zeppelin stayed. Passed into legend, often displayed in fictions, having a British prog rock band named after it, forever present in out dreams...

The count's flying ships

Von Zeppelin Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin was THE figurehead behind the concept of airship. He did not invented the dirigible, then a French invention, but took it and after many fails, pushed the envelope in reliability and size until making the formidable machine that existed in WW1. During its relatively long history, and many imitations -never really equalled- Zeppelin's airships were by far the most numerous type in use, with about a hundred airships built until 1937. The genericized trademark has been recently resuscitated, for tourist trips around lake constance, and no longer for long-range fights the DELAG made in the 1910-1937 period. Until indeed the introduction of transatlantic planes in the late 1930s and 1940s, the Zeppelin was the only way to travel for very long distances. But the space and luxury on board, relative slow speed made them more akin first-class cruise ship than mainstream transportation.

The Count, born in the small Württemberg Kingdom, between Switzerland and Germany, bordered by Lake Constance, was a cavalry officer and observer during the American Civil War where he witnessed the use of balloons (then "aerostats", or moored balloon) for observation. He distinguished himself as a brilliant cavalry officer in the Franco-Prussian War that saw the German unification, but was apparently sacked after the war by the high command, something he found dishonorable, leading him to resign in 1891. The Württemberg King has appointed him the rank of retired general in compensation, but the count from then on only goal would be to regain prestige and honor by giving Germany a war-winning weapon.

By the time Count Von Zeppelin started working on the concept in 1874, Dupuy de Lôme had flew an airship since 1872, with a hand-crank propeller. So this soon became a matter of rivalry between France and Germany, especially from the 1880s. Zeppelin developed his theories into plans in 1893 and then patents in 1895, and 1899 in the USA. He has been apparently at first inspired by a speech made by Heinrich von Stephan on "World Postal Services and Air Travel". Perhaps the successes obtained by Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs' airship La France in 1887 were the most vivid incentive for him to send a letter to King of Württemberg, warning him about Germany's lack of interest in that matter. He battled started at age 52 on air resistance and light enough petrol engines, like those developed by Rudolf Hans Bartsch von Sigsfeld.

Zeppelin LZ1 The first flight of the Zeppelin LZ1 in 1900

His 1892 design already comprised the main trademarks of the type, a rigid but modular aluminium framework covered with fabric and internal cells, as written down by engineer Theodor Kober and submitted to the Prussian high command. His 1895 patent called for a Lenkbarer Luftfahrzug mit mehreren hintereinanderen angeordneten Tragkörpern or "steerable airship-train with several carrier structures arranged one behind another". A succesful lecture at the Association of German Engineers was followed by an enthusiastic fund raising and later a stock company was setup with the help of Carl Berg (aluminium manufacturing), Philipp Holzmann, Daimler, Max von Eyth, Carl von Linde, and Friedrich Voith in 1896, and in 1898-1900, ended with the building and first tests of the Zeppelin LZ1.

Pre-war era Zeppelins

The LZ-1 was a short-lied experiment, a "proof of concept" in the sense we give it today. This first Zepelin showed not only it was longer than the French La France but also faster, but it was dismantled nevertheless because of the lack of funds in 1901. The next one, LZ2 was ready by November 1905 and taken out of its hangar to be carried to lake Constance, but it never lifted off. After a second attempt, it flew for some distance but eventually crashed landing in emergency and was damaged beyond repair. The LZ3 of October 1906 was however a fair and unmitigated success, accumulating flight of great duration and eventually purchased by the Army. It was lengthened for the occasion and used for training until being retired in 1913. Both types were assimilated to the "B-Type". In 1908 a C-Type was introduced, LZ-4. This larger craft completed a record 12 hours flight mission, and then 24h endurance flight but it landed because of an engine failure and was destroyed because of strong winds. The LZ5 (May 1909) of the same type also was lost during a storm, severing all its moorings and crashed landed near Weilburg in March 1910, a complete loss. The LZ7 was another military Zeppelin from 1911, of the F type also in civilian use, and named Ersatz Z II. She was used for training and decommissioned on 1st August 1914. Other military Zeppelin prewar included LZ9, 12, 14, up to LZ25 of the H, L and K types. Of these the H type was the most prolific with 6 units.

Zeppelin LZ4 Zeppelin LZ4 gallery and wreck in 1910. Contrary to the awaited effect of such blow, the “Miracle at Echterdingen” took place: The Germans contributed 6 million marks for the construction of a new airship and gave new life to the zeppelin enterprise.

DELAG Zeppelins

LZ6 was the first D-type and also the first to experiment with wireless communication. It was also the first used for passengers by DELAG. It was lost however in a fire in its own hangar of Ooos, near Baden-Baden in September 1910. She was followed by two E-Types, this time not experimental but for regular flights: The LZ7 and LZ8, both of the new E-type in 1910-1911. but both were ill-fated. The first was introduced on 19 June 1910, but one week later, she was damaged beyond repair after crashing during a thunderstorm over the Teutoburg Forest. The second, named Deutschland II to replace the first, named "Deutschland" flew from April to May 1911: She was indeed caught by a strong crosswind while being walked out of the hangar, and so badly damaged she was scrapped afterwards. However the LZ 10 named "Schwalben" introduced on 26 June 1911, was the first true DELAG commercial success, carrying 1,553 passengers in 218 commercial flights. However in June 1912 she caught fire when a strong gust damaged its mooring near Düsseldorf, causing in addition some injuries. The Viktoria Luise or LZ 11 was the first G-Type (only two built, the second was for the military) and was used from 1912 by DELAG until 1914, when she was taken by the German military for conversion to a training airship. She was lost because of massive structural failure in her hangar on 1 October 1915. LZ 13 "Hansa" from 30 July 1912 was DELAG's last prewar airship. She traveled 44,437 km (27,612 mi; 23,994 nmi) in 399 flights. She was also the first to carry passengers outside Germany. She was also personally commanded by Graf von Zeppelin when visiting Denmark and Sweden in September 1912. When the war broke out she was taken over by the German military, served for reconnaissance and training and was decommissioned in the summer 1916.

LZ 13 hansa LZ 13 "Hansa", a G-Type served with DELAG and was its most successful airship. Luck went on in Army service later without incident and she was retired in 1916.

Wartime Zeppelins

The serie went on with the single N-Type LZ 26 (tactical id Z XII), a successful bomber that made 11 attacks in Northern France and the Eastern front. She dropped a total of 20,000 kgs (44,000 lb) and later an additional 9,000 kg (20,000 lb) on the Warsaw to Petrograd trunk railway line and was able to carry 3,000 kg (6,600 lb) at each flight. The next large wartime serie was the M-Type (11 built), already started before the war, with LZ24 (see later). There were only two O-Types, but 22 P-Types, 12 Q-Types. The R-Type was also called the "Super-Zeppelin" class, with a volume of 55,200 m3. They were able to carry 2350 kgs (5200 lb) of bombs and more. 17 were built, the last was LZ90 in 1917. Meanwhile, Zeppelin engineers worked on the S-Type (2), Height-Climber S class, with a lightened structure to improve maximum altitude. The years 1917-1918 saw several smaller-scale classes with the T-type (2), U-Type (5), V-Type (10), W-Type (2 which saw service in the Mediterranean) and the X-Type (3) which was to be the last wartime Zeppelin ever.

LZ 50 LZ 89 (L50), one of the many R-Type which performed 5 reconnaissance missions and 2 raids over UK, just ran out of fuel on 20 October 1917. Her crew attempted a landing, but the control car was torn off near Danmartin in the process. Without any control, she was eventually blown over the Mediterranean, five crew members staying on board.

Technology

Between 250,000 cows to 2.5 million cows to make bladders.

Classes of Zeppelin Airships

M-Class (1914)

L6 and L11 in 1915

The first "mass-produced" class or military airships started just before the war and went on with about 11 airships, LZ24 to LZ37 (launched 4 March 1915). These were built at Friedrichshafen Yard. They hd 3 Maybach engines, could climb up to 2000m, out of reach of any fighters of the time, but both speed and bomb load were symbolic. L7 drawing
L7 (LZ 32) illustration from zeppelin-museum.dk

Specifications

Dimensions: Length: 518 ft 2 in (157.8m), Diameter: 48 ft 6 in (14.6 m), volume 794,500 sq ft
Weight: Empty 39,000 lb, Payload 18,500 lb
Propulsion: 3 Gondolas, Maybach C-X of 210 hp (630 hp total)
Performances: Max speed 52 mph (83 kmh), Range 1366 miles (416 km), Ceiling 6560 ft (2000 m)

O-Class (1914)

L9

Only two, LZ36 and LZ39 were built of this serie, in March and April 1915. The first performed 74 reconnaissance missions in the North Sea and four raids over Southern England, dropping 5,683 kg (12,529 lb) and also attacked several British submarines. She was eventually burnt out in her hangar on 16 September 1916. LZ39 launched three raids on the western fronts, and two on the eastern front (4,184 kg bombs dropped). On 17 December 1915, under orders of Dr. Lempertz, she was hit by shrapnel during an attack on Rovno. With all her gas cells punctured and front engine car badly hit. In fact it later fell it off and the crew dropped ballast, shifted loads to rebalance the ship and tried to steer it in the rear, making an attempt back to Germany. But she crashed landed later and collapsed due to the lack of gas. L9 drawing

Specifications

Dimensions: Length: 518 ft 2 in (157.8m), Diameter: 48 ft 6 in (14.6 m), volume 794,500 sq ft
Weight: Empty 39,000 lb, Payload 18,500 lb
Propulsion: 3 Gondolas, Maybach C-X of 210 hp (630 hp total)
Performances: Max speed 52 mph (83 kmh), Range 1366 miles (416 km), Ceiling 6560 ft (2000 m)

P-Class (1915)

LZ66 of the stretch P type

The second "mass-produced" class or Zeppelins was launched in 1915 and went on until 1917. 22 were built, and in addition 12 of a the lengthened version, Q Class. Designed by Ludwig Dürr they were used both for reconnaissance and bombing. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeppelin_P_Class The P class was an enlarged version of the preceding M class, originally destined to the German Navy Ministry an derived from the LZ 26. First presented as a passenger airship for DELAG it was the ver first Zeppelin with a duralumin framework and a strengthening keel inside the hull. Its volume increased from 25,000 m3 (880,000 cu ft) to 31,900 m3 (1,126,000 cu ft), and a fourth engine was needed to vanquish air resistance. That size allowed also a greater range and (bomb) load plus for the first time enclosed gondola for the crew, instead of open one, making the trip more comfortable. The P class in addition was more streamlined with only a 60 m (197 ft) section out of the total 163.5 m (536 5 in) that was cylindrical, and it was divided between sixteen 10 m (32 ft 9 in) bays for ballonets. The four 160 kW (210 hp) Maybach CX six cylinder engines were succeeded later in production by four 180 kW (240 hp) Maybach HSLu engines. Intermediate frames were fitted between each wire-braced ring frames, reduce lateral loads, and the 17 girders, housing the 16 gasbags made from three layers of goldbeater's skin, backed by cotton, and latter plain rubberized cotton. Pressure relief valves were automated at the bottom of the gasbags, waste being simply diffused upwards between gasbags. Some of these also had manual backups. The covering was undoped to allow the hydrogen to escape.

The forward gondola was the bridge, and the crew accommodations was divided into two separate sections to avoid engine vibration and this small gap was faired over with fabric. The forward section was divided into three compartments, control area, radio compartment, and officer's rest room. On both sides of the latter, windows had a machine-gun port. The engine compartment at the rear section contained a single engine mated to a propeller at the rear, with a reduction gear. The engine gondola carried three engines in line, with one driving the back gondola and the other a pair of propellers on each side, which could work in reverse for maneuvers. A machine-gun mounting was fitted on each side and there was another single machine at the stern, behind the rudders, in a small cockpit a bit like WW2 bombers tail gunner. Two or three machine guns were also mounted on top of the hull in a bathtub-like arrangement, reached by a ladder accessible from the forward gondola Between the keel girders were suspended electrically released bomb, from the control gondola. The crew comprised 19 airmen, one Executive Officer, a Commander, Navigator, "Sailmaker" (responsible for gasbags), a Chief Engineer, 2 altitude coxswains, 2 steering coxswains, and 8 lower-rank engineers).

Specifications

Dimensions: Length: 163.50 m (536 ft 5 in), Diameter: 18.69 m (61 ft 4 in), Volume: 32,920 m3 (1,162,400 cu ft)
Propulsion: 4 × Maybach 3M C-X 6-cylinder inline piston engine, 160 kW (210 hp) each
Performance: Max. speed: 92 km/h; 50 kn (57 mph), Cruise speed: 63 km/h; 34 kn (39 mph), Ceiling: 3,500 m (11,600 ft)
Armament: 7/8 water-cooled MG 08/air-cooled Parabellum MG 14, 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) bombs

Q-Class (1916)

LZ66 of the stretch P type

By late 1915, Zeppelin introduced the Q class, a true fliying fortress capable of a greater operation ceiling. Its hull was lengthened by 15 m (49 ft), for an internal volume up to 35,800 cubic metres (1,264,100 cu ft) and soon, all existing P class airships were lengthened and bring to the Q-Class standard. L7 drawing
L7 (LZ 32) illustration from zeppelin-museum.dk

Specifications

Dimensions: Length: 518 ft 2 in (157.8m), Diameter: 48 ft 6 in (14.6 m), volume 794,500 sq ft
Weight: Empty 39,000 lb, Payload 18,500 lb
Propulsion: 3 Gondolas, Maybach C-X of 210 hp (630 hp total)
Performances: Max speed 52 mph (83 kmh), Range 1366 miles (416 km), Ceiling 6560 ft (2000 m)


Zeppelins launched before and during WW1

  • LZ1 (1900) test airship, dismantled 1901
  • LZ2 (1906) B-class, failed to flew 1906
  • LZ3 (1906) B-class decomm. 1913
  • LZ4 (1908) C-class destroyed 1908
  • LZ5 (1909) C-class destroyed 1910
  • LZ6 (1909) D-class destroyed 1910
  • LZ7 (1910) E-class destroyed 1910
  • LZ8 (1910) E-class Lost 1911
  • LZ9 (1911) F-class decomm. 1914
  • LZ10 (1911) F-class (civilian) lost 1912
  • LZ11 (1912) G-class used by DELAG, then Luft. Lost 1915
  • LZ12 (1912) F-class Military service Decomm. 1916
  • LZ13 (1912) G-class Made 399 flights, DELAG then Luft. decomm. 1916
  • LZ14 (1912) H-Type Lost in Helgoland (storm) 1913
  • LZ15 (1913) H-Type Lost in forced landing 1913
  • LZ16 (1913) H-Type Crash landed in France 1913
  • LZ17 (1913) H-Type DELAG then converted bomber, decomm. 1913
  • LZ18 (1913) I-Class Lose in the Johannisthal Air Disaster the same year
  • LZ19 (1913) H-Type forced landing June 1914
  • LZ20 (1913) H-Type Lost wartime during the attack on Mława, Battle of Tannenberg
  • LZ21 (1913) K-Type bomber, crash landed in Bonn
  • LZ22 (1914) L-Type recce missions, crash landed in Lorraine
  • LZ23 (1914) L-Type Bomber, crash-landed Brandonvillers
  • LZ24 (1914) M-Class Long range overseas recce model, crash-landed at sea
  • LZ25 (1914) M-class Bombed Antwerp destroyed in Hangar Düsseldorf 1914
  • LZ26 (1914) N-Type bomber France Poland, Decomm. 1917
  • LZ27 (1914) M-Type recce missions, Blitz, crash landed Blavandshuk 1915
  • LZ28 (1914) M-Type recce mission north sea, Lost over Russia 1915
  • LZ29 (1914) M-Type Bomber, Forced landing St Quentin 1914
  • LZ30 (1914) M-Type Bomber eastern ft, lost accident 1915
  • LZ31 (1914) M-Type Cuxhaven Raid, recce missions, lost by fire Fuhlsbüttel 1916
  • LZ32 (1914) M-Type Bomber over UK. Downed 1916 by ships
  • LZ33 (1914) M-Type Recce lissions western Ft. Fired by AAA 1915
  • LZ34 (1915) M-Type Bomber Eastern Ft. Damaged 1915, dest. by fire at Insterburg
  • LZ35 (1915) M-Type Bomber Fr Belg, Forced landing Aeltre AAA, storm
  • LZ36 (1915) O-Type Recce missions North Sea, raids UK, Lost hangar 1916
  • LZ37 (1915) M-Type short down near Ghent 1915
  • LZ38 (1915) P-Class, Blitz, destroyed Hangar Evere
  • LZ39 (1915) P-Class, Raids Easter, western ft. Damaged by AAA 1915
  • LZ40 (1915) P-Class, Recce missions over North sea, Blitz, lost storm 1915
  • LZ41 (1915) P-Class, Recce missions Jutland battle, Decomm. 1917
  • LZ42 (1915) P-Class, Schoolship, Decomm. 1917
  • LZ43 (1915) P-Class recce missions downed AAA 1915
  • LZ44 (1915) P-Class Bombing raids, Lost Eifel Mt. 1915
  • LZ45 (1915) P-Class 45 recce missions and 15 Raids, Decom. 1917
  • LZ46 (1915) P-Class 42 recce, 17 raids missions, decomm. 1918
  • LZ47 (1915) P-Class 6 Bomb. missions, Batt. Verdun 1916
  • LZ48 (1915) P-Class 8 recce, 3 raid missions, downed AAA Dartford 1916
  • LZ49 (1915) P-Class Eastern Ft., France, downed by AAA 1916
  • LZ50 (1915) P-Class 44 recce, 12 raids, lost Nordholz 1917
  • LZ51 (1915) P-Class SE and Eastern fts, downed AAA Bulgaria 1916
  • LZ52 (1915) P-Class Lost accident Tondern 1915
  • LZ53 (1915) P-Class 27 recce, 9 raids missions, Destroyed hangar Trondern 1916
  • LZ54 (1915) P-class, Blitz, Down Dutch AAA North sea 1916
  • LZ55 (1915) P-Class, 6 raids eastern ft. downed by HMS Agamemnon 1916 Vardar
  • LZ56 (1915) P-Class, 7 raids, East/SE Fronts crash-landed Temesvar 1916
  • LZ57 (1915) P-Class, 18 missions, decomm. 1917
  • LZ58 (1915) P-Class, 14 recce, 3 raids, decom. 1917
  • LZ59 (1915) Q-Class, 6 recce, 2 raids; landed Norway 1916
  • LZ60 (1916) P-Class, 4 raids, lost storm 1916
  • LZ61 (1916) Q-Type 17 recce, 10 raids, downed BE 2C 1916
  • LZ62 (1916) R-Type, 31 recce, 10 raids, retired 1917, to Belgium 1920
  • LZ63 (1916) P-Type, 3 raids, decom. 1917
  • LZ64 (1916) Q-Type, 30 recce, 3 raids, short down 1917 RNAS Curtiss H12
  • LZ65 (1916) Q-Type, downed AAA Feb. 1916 1st mission Vitry-le Francois
  • LZ66 (1916) Q-Type, 51 recce, 3 raids, downed 1917 Sopwith pup from HMS Yarmouth
  • LZ67 (1916) Q-Type raids London, Boulogne, Bucarest, decom. 1917
  • LZ68 (1916) Q-Type, 1 raid, 15 recce, decom. 1917
  • LZ69 (1916) Q-Type, 19 recce, 4 raids, accident Dec. 1916
  • LZ70 (1916) Not built
  • LZ71 (1916) Q-Type, raided SE Europe, dismantled Bulgaria 1917
  • LZ72 (1916) R-Type 1 recce, 6 raids, downed aircraft Oct. 1916 north London
  • LZ73 (1916) Q-Type 1 raid Calais, 7 others, Decom. 1917
  • LZ74 (1916) R-Type blitz, 3 raids UK, short down 1916 RAF BE2C
  • LZ75 (1916) R-Type 17 recce, 4 raids, decom. 1917, transferred japan 1920
  • LZ76 (1916) R-Type Blitz, intercepted, forced landed 1916
  • LZ77 (1916) Q-Type 1 raid Boulogne, Decomm. 1917
  • LZ78 (1916) R-Type 3 recce, 2 raids Blitz Shot down Nov. 1916 by BE2C
  • LZ79 (1917) R-Type 15 recce, 4 raids Blitz, school ship 1917, scuttled 1919
  • LZ80 (1917) R-Type 13 recce, 3 raids, Decomm. 1918
  • LZ81 (1917) Q-Type Transferred Navy 1917, recce Baltic, Decom Aug. 1917
  • LZ82 (1917) R-Type 20 recce North sea, UL, crash landed 1917
  • LZ83 (1917) R-Type 15 recce East. Ft. Baltic, 3 raids, transferred Fr 1920
  • LZ84 (1916) R-Type Crash landed St Petesrburg Dec. 1916
  • LZ85 (1917) R-Type 12 recce, 3 raids, forced landing Sisteron Fr. Oct. 1917
  • LZ86 (1916) R-Type 3 recce, 1 raid Blitz, shot AAA Compiègne March 1917
  • LZ87 (1917) R-Type 18 recce, 3 raids, Destroyed by fire Ahlhorn Jan. 1918
  • LZ88 (1917) R-Type 7 recce, 2 raids Blitz, crash landed Nordholz
  • LZ89 (1917) R-Type 5 recce, 2 raids Blitz lost Med. October 1917
  • LZ90 (1917) R-Type 17 recce, 3 raids East. Ft. retired Oct. 1917, transferred Italy 1920
  • LZ91 (1917) S-type new high altitude proto, 20 recce missions, school ship 1918, scuttled 1919
  • LZ92 (1917) S-Type 6 recce missions, 1 raid blitz, shot down June 1917
  • LZ93 (1917) T-Class 8 recce missions, 4 raids Blitz, shot down Lunéville Fr Oct 1917
  • LZ94 (1917) T-Class 19 recce missions, 3 raids blitz, burnt Alhorn explosion
  • LZ95 (1917) U-Class 1 recce mission, shot down 17 June 1917
  • LZ96 (1917) U-Class 2 recce missions, 1 raid Blitz, forced landed r October 1917
  • LZ97 (1917) U-Class 3 recce mission, 1 raid Blitz, lost Alhorn explosion
  • LZ98 (1917) U-Class 20 recce missions, 1 raid, scuttled 1919
  • LZ99 (1917) U-Class 14 recce, 2 raids Blitz, burnt HMS Furious planes Toska attack 1918
  • LZ100 (1917) V-Class 19 recce missions, 4 raids blitz, short down Sop. Camel from HMS Redoubt destroyer 1918
  • LZ101 (1917) V-Class 2 raids, force landed Oct. 1917
  • LZ102 (1917) W-Class lost storm Oct 1917
  • LZ103 (1917) W-Class 17 recce missions, 1 raid 1918, scuttled 1919
  • LZ104 (1917) W-Type Afrika-Schiff based Bulgaria, crashed Otranto April 1918
  • LZ105 (1917) V-Type 2 recce missions, destroyed Alhorn explosion 1918
  • LZ106 (1917) V-Type 9 recce missions, 1 raid blitz, To Italy 1920
  • LZ107 (1918) V-Type 2 recce missions, 2 raids Blitz, crashed helgoland 1918
  • LZ108 (1917) V-Type 11 recce missions 1 raid, destroyed Toska attack
  • LZ109 (1918) V-Type 13 recce missions, 1 raid Blitz, scrapped 1920
  • LZ110 (1918) V-Type 3 raids blitz 1918, scuttled 1919
  • LZ111 (1918) V-Type last raid Blitz 1918, scuttled 1919
  • LZ112 (1918) X-Type last raid Blitz Aug. 1918, shot down DH-4
  • LZ113 (1918) X-Type never used, transferred UK but scrapped
  • LZ114 (1918) X-Type completed 1920 to France as Dixmude (lost 1923)
  • LZ115 (1918) Cancelled
  • LZ116 (1918) Cancelled
  • LZ117 (1918) Cancelled
  • LZ118 (1918) Cancelled
  • LZ119 (1918) Cancelled


Zeppelin LZ2 Zeppelin LZ2 in 1906

Zeppelin Aircrafts

Lesser known, Zeppelin aircrafts were mostly massive, as expected. They were manufactured in two facilities, Zeppelin in Lindau (later Dornier flugzeugbau, headed by young Claude Dornier), and at Staaken (mostly heavy bombers).

Zeppelin-Lindau R-series patrol seaplanes

Zeppelin RS1 flying boat project Zeppelin-Lindau Rs.I model

Claudius Dornier gained the attention of Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin while working on a proposed trans-atlantic airship during 1913. Later he appointed him as chief designer of the Zeppelin-Werke at Lindau, responsible for building large patrol flying boats. Dornier's first design to be built was the Rs.I. This was a large aircraft (Riesenflugzeug in the German classification) constructed largely of high-strength steel for highly stressed parts, and Duralumin (aluminium alloy) for low stress parts. The wings were on top of the hull and were braced with four sets per side of Warren strut style interplane structures comprising 'V' struts, which obviated the need for drag inducing wire bracing. The wing structure was formed with built-up steel spars, four in the top wing and three in the lower wing, and duralumin ribs riveted to the spars and braced internally. The fuselage was also made up from formed steel members built up into a framework which was then covered with fabric or dural sheeting. The powerplant arrangements were unorthodox, with the two outboard engines housed inside the fuselage, each driving a pusher propeller via shafts and bevel gearboxes, and a central pusher engine in a nacelle between the wings

  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) Rs.I - giant patrol seaplane
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) Rs.II - giant patrol seaplane
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) Rs.III - giant patrol seaplane
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) Rs.IV - giant patrol seaplane
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) D.I - fighter
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) C.I - two-seat military aircraft
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) C.II - two-seat military aircraft
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS.I - two-seat floatplane
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CL.II - two seat close support/ground attack aircraft
  • Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) V1 - experimental pusher to test stressed skin structure
  • Zeppelin (Ja) C.I - reconnaissance, unrelated to previous C.I
  • Zeppelin (Ja) C.II -reconnaissance, unrelated to previous C.II
  • Zeppelin-Staaken V.G.O.I - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken V.G.O.II - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken V.G.O.III - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken R.IV - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken R.V - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken R.VI & Type L seaplane - heavy bomber/patrol bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken R.VII - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken 8301 - heavy floatplane bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken R.XIV - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken R.XV - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken R.XVI - heavy bomber
  • Zeppelin-Staaken E-4/20 - heavy bomber/transport

Src, Read More:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_von_Zeppelin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airship
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeppelin
http://www.airships.net/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Zeppelins
http://www.zeppelin-museum.de/
http://www.zeppelin-museum-zeppelinheim.de/
www.zeppelin-museum.dk/
http://www.zeppelin-lz.com/lz-archiv.html
https://www.wired.com/2014/10/world-war-i-zeppelins/
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/q-how-many-cows-does-it-take-to-build-a-zeppelin-a-250000-8782723.html
https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/ww1-airships.asp